Team of monkeys . com, founded in February 1964* is a
subsidiary of STOM Research, founded in December 1961*. Utilizing the
vast resources at its disposal, STOM Research has resulted in
conclusive evidence that monkeys working in teams can benefit the human
race in ways not previously accepted because monkeys working alone are
unable to perform the same task(s).
Notable highlights from STOM Resarch's 59 decades.
1956 - Dr Otto Verbraucher wins science recognition
1977 - Shakespear Theorum proved wrong. Even an infinite
monkeys working in an organized team will still not render the complete
works of shakespears complete works in proper order.
1988 - Internet is opened to the commercial public enabling
teamofmonkeys.com to be available to non-military personnel.
About STOM Research
The Gateway to Team Work
STOM Research is an international laboratory superior monkey
training, providing some
of the most technologically advanced facilities for their research into
the basic building blocks of STOM. Specialist facilities that
would otherwise be difficult or impossible for individual nations to
build include advanced modulators
such as the Massive Ion Modulator and facilities for the production of
exotic forms of teams, including anti-teams.[sic]
STOM has established a reputation at the forefront of research,
proven through its experiments, past and present. STOM Labs are also a
vibrant meeting place for discussion and debate;
around half of the world’s top researchers come here to share their
research. This is reflected in the experiments, which are usually run
by international collaborations, bringing together both human and
from different institutes towards a common goal. [ibid]
Soon after its establishment, the work at the laboratory went beyond
the study of team leadership into lower level dynamics, an activity
which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between the
lower level team members. Therefore the laboratory operated by STOM is
commonly referred to Team Of Monkeys rather thank "Team Leadership" [et al]
Stock photography consists of
that can be licensed for specific uses. Publishers, advertising
agencies, graphic artists, and others use stock photography to fulfill
the needs of their creative assignments.
A customer who uses stock photography
instead of hiring a
photographer can save time and money, but can also sacrifice creative
control. Stock images can be presented in searchable online databases,
purchased online, and delivered via download or email.
A collection of stock photography may
also be called a photo archive, picture library, image
bank or photo bank.
As modern stock photography distributors often carry stills, video, and
illustrations, none of the existing terminology provides a perfect
Images are filed at an agency that
negotiates licensing fees on the
photographer's behalf in exchange for a percentage, or in some cases
owns the images outright. This is increasingly done online, especially
with the newer micro-stock models like Shutterstock
Pricing is determined by size of
audience or readership, how long
the image is to be used, country or region where the images will be
used and whether royalties are due to the image creator or owner.
Often, an image can be licensed for less than $200, or in the case of
the microstock photography websites as
little as $1.
With Rights Managed stock photography an
individual licensing agreement is negotiated for each use. Royalty-free
stock photography offers a photo buyer the ability to use an image in
an unlimited number of ways for a single license fee. The client may,
however, request "exclusive" rights, preventing other customers from
using the same image for a specified length of time or in the same
industry. Such sales can command many thousands of dollars, both
because they tend to be high-exposure and because the agency is
gambling that the image would not have made more money had it remained
in circulation. However, with royalty free licensing there is no option
for getting exclusive usage rights.
Some stock photography sites offer
low-resolution photography free for the purpose of preparing
to demonstrate a design. If the advertiser decides to use the image,
the rights to use the high-resolution image then can be negotiated.
Professional stock photographers place
their images with one or more
stock agencies on a contractual basis, with a defined commission basis
and for a specified contract term. Some photographers fund their own
photo shoots, or develop imagery in cooperation with an agency, while
others submit photographs originally produced as part of editorial
(magazine) or commercial assignments.
"Free" in this context means "free of
royalties (paying each time
you use an image)". It does not mean the image is free to use without
purchasing a license or that the image is in the public
Pay a one-time fee to use the image multiple times for multiple
purposes (with limits).
No time limit on when the buyer can use an image.
No one can have exclusive rights of a Royalty-free image (the
photographer can sell the image as many times as he wants).
A Royalty-free image usually has a limit to how many times the
buyer can reproduce it. For example, a license might allow the buyer to
print 500,000 brochures with the purchased image. The amount of copies
made is called the print run.
Above that print run the buyer is required to pay a fee per brochure,
usually 1 to 3 cents. Magazines with a large print run cannot use a
standard Royalty-free license and therefore they either purchase images
with a Rights-managed license or have in-house photographers.
(sometimes called "licensed images")
The value of a license is determined by the use of the image,
which is generally broken down along these lines;
Usage: (eg. Advertising - "Above the Line", Corporate
- "Below the Line" or Editorial - "News Media")
Specific Use: (eg. Billboard, Annual Report, Newspaper
The terms of the license are clearly defined and negotiated so
the purchaser receives maximum value, and is protected in their
purchase by a certain level of exclusivity.
Rights-managed licenses provide assurance that an image will not
used by someone else in a conflicting manner. The agreement can include
exclusivity, and usually recognises that this represents added value.
Not all Rights-managed licenses are exclusive, that must be stipulated
in the agreement.
A Rights-managed image usually allows a much larger print run per
image than a Royalty-free license.
Editorial is a form of rights-managed license when there are no
releases for the subjects. Since there are no releases the images
cannot be used for advertising or to depict controversial subjects,
only for news or educational purposes.
An important feature of web-based stock photography collections
that the images have been embedded with meta-data, therefore making the
images searchable by using keywords.
One of the first major stock
photography agencies was the one
founded in 1920 by H. Armstrong Roberts, which continues today under
the name RobertStock.
For many years, stock photography
consisted largely of outtakes
("seconds") from commercial magazine assignments. By the 1980s, it had
become a specialty in its own right, with photographers creating new
material for the express purpose of submitting it to a stock house.
Agencies attempted to become more sophisticated about following and
anticipating the needs of advertisers and communicating these needs to
photographers. Photographs were composed with more of an eye for how
they might look when combined with other elements; for example, a photo
might be shot vertically with space at the top and down the left side,
with the conscious intention that it might be licensed for use as a
In the 1990s, a period of consolidation
followed, with Getty Images and Corbis
becoming the two largest companies as a result of acquisitions. Today,
stock photography companies have largely moved online. In the early
has started buying some of the smaller players in the market,
aggregating them under the banner of their Jupiterimages division, and
became the third largest player in the market. The availability of the
internet provided a means for other, smaller companies to get a
foothold in the industry.
Using the Internet as their sole
distribution method, and recruiting
mainly amateur and hobbyist photographers from around the globe, these
companies are able to offer stock libraries of good quality for very
In 2003 ShutterPoint pioneered the open
access model which allowed everyone to upload and market images.
The trend was continued by fotoLibra
in 2004 and in 2005 Scoopt started a photo news agency for citizen journalism enabling the public
to upload and sell breaking news images taken with cameraphones.
In 2007 Cutcaster extended upon this
model, by allowing anyone to
upload and market images and define their own price or let buyers bid
on content. It was the first negotiation platform of its kind.